National Autism Conference - June 11 - 12, 2020
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Milestones Autism Resources

4853 Galaxy Parkway, Suite A
Warrensville Heights, OH 44128

Phone: (216) 464-7600

Home Resources Glossary

Glossary

ABA

AAIDD (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities)

Provides leadership worldwide for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

ABA Therapy (Applied Behavior Analysis)

ABA is a scientific method for predicting and controlling human behavior. ABA uses different assessments and activities to create a treatment plan to develop and maintain practical skills in children with ASD. ABA Therapy remains to be one of the most successful skill development programs for individuals with ASD.

ABC Assessment

Observing Behavior (B) and its functional relationship s to Antecedents (A) and Consequences (C).

ABS -- Adaptive Behavior Scale

ABS help practitioners diagnose, support, and determine the level of independence an individual has.

Absolute Indicators

These are the initial signs of autism that professionals notice.

ACA -- Affordable Care Act

ACA is intended to lower the cost of health care and improve system efficiency. It provides Americans with health care that is affordable and comprehensive.

Accessible

ADA outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.

ADA -- Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

ADA outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.

Adaptive Behavior

Adaptive Behavior means that a person is significantly limited to two or more skill areas in communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. It is measured by an instrument that is appropriate for a persons living environment and is determined by a qualified professional.

Adaptive Response

A way a person responds to what is happening in the environment.

Adaptive Skills

Also known as Functional Skills, are the skills that are used in daily living such as eating or getting dressed.

ADD -- Attention Deficit Disorder

A brain disorder that is marked by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with function or development.

ADHD -- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A condition in children who experience overactive behavior (hyperactivity), impulsive behavior, and difficulty paying attention.

Advanced Directive

This document tells a physician what kind of care you would like if you were to become unable to make your own decisions pertaining to your medical treatment. For example, if you were in a coma.

Advocacy

Parents, family members, organizations, or volunteers that work on behalf of the rights and interests of others like individuals with disabilities.

Antecedent

A stimulus that occurs before a behavior. It makes the behavior more or less likely to occur again in the future.

Anxiety

A feeling of worry or nervousness that is typically about an imminent event or something with an outcome that is uncertain.

Aquatic Therapy

It is a practice of physical therapy in an aquatic environment. It is not limited to treatment, rehab, prevention, health, wellness, and fitness of clients.

ASL -- American Sign Language

It is a visual language that the brain processes linguistic information through the eyes. The shape, placement and movement of hands, and facial expressions all play an important part of ASL.

Asperger Syndrome or Disorder

A developmental disorder characterized by a lack of social skills, impaired social relationships, poor coordination, and poor concentration.

Assistive Technology

Devices that are used by individuals with disabilities to compensate for functional limitations, and enhances the learning, independence, mobility, communication, environmental control and choice.

Auditory Integration Training

An intervention in which a person with ASD listens to filtered, electronically modulated music for an extended period of time.

Autism

It is a range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and nonverbal communication. It does not only affect how the brain develops but may also relate to immunological, gastrointestinal and metabolic problems.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

It is a condition that is related to how brain development can affect the ability of an individual to interact, communicate, relate, play, socialize, imagine, and learn.

Autonomy

An ethical principle that proposes all adults are competent until a court decides that incompetence exists.

Babbling

A child begins to vocalize repeated consonant-vowel combinations, like ba ba ba or da da da, between six to nine months. Babbling precedes real speech and is necessary in the process of learning to talk.

BCABA -- Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst

A BCABA can assist behavior analyst that have been certified by an accredited organization.

BCIS -- Behavior & Curriculum Intervention Specialist

Works with students, families, and staff in public schools to ensure that children with special needs are receiving the appropriate services and supports to have a successful education.

BDLS -- Basic Daily Living Skills

These are normal activities that are done on a daily basis like eating, bathing, getting dressed, grooming, etc.

CCBDD -- Cuyahoga County Board of Developmental Disabilities

The CCBDD offers a range of services for individuals with disabilities in Cuyahoga County. These services are provided for young children, families, and seniors which include specialized therapies resources, respite care, community employment, rehab, and crisis intervention.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

A serious diagnosis that is characterized by at least two years of normal development followed by gradual loss of language, social and motor skills by the age of 10.

Chromosomes

They are large DNA-containing structures in the heart of the cell called the nuclei.

CMS -- Community and Medicaid Services

Provide opportunities for individuals with Medicaid to receive services within their own community.

Cognitive

Pertains to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes.

Communication Board

A primary form of communication who may not be able to vocalize intelligibly

Comorbid Conditions

They are additional medical conditions that may occur along with autism.

Compulsions

These are deliberate repetitive behaviors that follow specific rules. Some examples include cleaning, checking, or counting.

Cues or Prompts

Forms of assistance that help teach behaviors and indicates what to do as reinforcement. Cues come in physical, visual, verbal and physical assistance.

Deficit

Any deficiency or difference from what is normal.

Developmental Milestones

These are markers that enable parents and professionals to monitor how a babies learning and behavior develop. As a child develops noticing any slight or major delay can create a red flag or warning sign to seek out help.

Diagnosis

A diagnosis should include all of the child’s development, medical history, activities, and behaviors that they have shown. This must include at least one physician and a inter or multi-disciplinary team from different specialties.

Disability Rights Ohio -- DRO

A nonprofit corporation with that advocate for human, civil, and legal rights for individuals with disabilities in Ohio.

Discrete Trial

It is a single cycle of behaviorally-based instruction. It may be repeated several times in succession until mastered.

Discriminative Stimulus

The instruction or environmental cue to which a teacher would like a child to respond to.

EBEI -- Early Intensive Behavior Intervention

Refers to an ABA intervention that focuses on very young children with ASD. This is an intensive program that refers to long hours and time spent directly with a child by the instructor.

Echopraxia

Imitation or repetition of body movement of another person.

Educational Service Center -- ESC

Provides leadership and support for individuals and school districts within the state of Ohio. They provide effective special education programs, student programs, professional development, and support state regulations to create community partners.

Emotional Regulation

A child’s ability to notice and respond to internal and external sensory input, and then adjust their emotions and behavior to the demands of their surroundings.

Environment

The entire state of circumstances in which an organism exists and behaves

Epilepsy

A group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, or all of these.

Expressive Language

The uses of verbal behavior or speech to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feeling with others.

Extinction

It is the technical term for the discontinuing of reinforcement as a child decrease a particular behavior.

Extinction Burst

These are the temporary increase of frequency, intensity, and/or duration of a behavior targeted for extinction

Facial Expressions

These are movements of the face that are used to express emotion or to communicate with others.

Fading

The process of slowly phasing out prompts that are used to elicit desired behavioral response from an individual.

FAPE -- Free Appropriate Public Education

It is the educational right for all children in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

Fixed Interval Schedules

It is to reinforce an individual after a fixed amount of time.

Fixed Ratio Schedules

To reinforce an individuals after a fixed number of correct responses.

Functional Play

It is done to complete a task or achieve certain goals. This is often performed during a therapy session.

General Anesthesia

It is an induced state of unconsciousness accompanied by partial or complete loss of protective reflexes, including the ability to independently maintain an airway and respond purposefully to physical stimulation or verbal command.

Gluten

An insoluble protein constitute of wheat and other grains.

Hans Asperger 
(February 18, 1906- October 21, 1980)

An Austrian pediatrician which Asperger’s Syndrome is name after. He observed autism like behaviors and difficulties with social and communication skills in boys of normal intelligence and language development.

Hyper Responsiveness

It is the abnormal sensitivity or over reactivity to sensory input. This is the state of feeling overwhelmed by what most people would consider common or ordinary stimuli of sound, sight, taste, touch, or smell.

Hypo Responsiveness

It is the abnormal insensitivity or under reactivity to sensory input, in which the brain fails to register incoming stimuli appropriately so the child does not respond to the sensory stimulation.

ICF/MR -- Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded

It is an intermediate case facility for individuals with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (ICFM/DD)

IDD -- Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

A neuro-developmental disorder that affects general intellectual functioning which includes reasoning, planning, judgement, etc.

IEP -- Individual Education Program

An IEP is a program designed specifically addressing a student’s particular learning needs, expectations, planning, and program reviewing. It outlines how the school and individual learning services providers will meet expectations through appropriate special education programs and services.

IFSP -- Individual Family Service Plan

They are programs for special services for young children with special needs, developmental disabilities, or ASD. They provide services that support the whole family, and create a treatment plan for the child.

Independent Living

When an individual receiving DDRC services, now lives independently

Individual Plan for Employment -- IPE

A written plan that describes an individual’s employment goals and the steps need to achieve those set goals.

Insistence on Sameness

Refers to a rigid adherence to a routine or activity carried out in a specific way, which then becomes a ritual or nonfunctional routine.

Intelligence Quotient-IQ

An IQ is the numerical representation of an individual’s mental strength and capacity.

Intrinsic Motivation

Refers to the motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades.

Joint Attention

Joint or shared attention is first accomplished by the caregiver looking at what the infant is looking at. Children learn to talk and use language to share enjoyment, interests, and achievements to later share ideas and experiences. Impairment in joint attention is a core deficit of ASD.

LRE -- Least Restrictive Environment

Your child’s right to go into mainstream school.

Manding

Another word for requesting by the child. A child who has mastered manding is capable of requesting objects or stimuli from others.

Medicaid

A funding source of authority under Title XIX if the Social Security Act that provides health care assistance to qualified individuals.

Medicare

A federal health care insurance program, run by the Health Care Finance Administration that includes both hospital and medical insurance

Modeling

Imitating or repeating a sound or an action

Multi-factored Evaluation -- MFE Evaluation Team Report -- ETR

An evaluation to determine if a child has a disability, and identify the specialized educational services they should receive.

Natural Supports

Supports and resources provided in the community by family, friends, and others who are not paid to provide such supports

Negative Reinforcements

A behavior that results in removing something that a person does not like

NEON -- Northeast Ohio Network

Increases opportunities for individuals with disabilities in Northeast, Ohio through shared resources.

Nonfunctional Routines

These are specified, sequential, and apparently purposeless repeated actions or behaviors that a child engaged in such as always lining up toys in a certain order each time of playing with them.

Nonverbal Behaviors

Behaviors that people do to convey or exchange information or express emotions without the use of words. These include eye gaze, facial expressions, body postures, and gestures.

Obsessions

These are repetitive thoughts that are persistent and intrusive.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder -- OCD

A chronic disorder in which an individual has uncontrollable, reoccurring thought (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they need to keep repeating.

Occupational Therapy -- OT

Therapist who use purposeful activities to improve movement and coordination, visual perceptual skills, self-help skills, and reading skills.

Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities -- OCECD

A statewide nonprofit organization that serves families and individuals of all ages with a disability, as well as the educators and professionals who provide them with service.

Ohio Department of Education -- ODE

Oversees the Ohio’s public education system. Their tasks include overseeing the school funding system, collect school fiscal and performance data, developing academic standards, administering achievement tests, issuing district and school report cards, and providing professional developments.

Ohio DODD -- Ohio Department of Developmental Disabilities

Committed to improving the quality of life for individuals in Ohio with developmental disabilities and their families. They offer support across the lifespan of individuals with developmental disabilities.

Operant Condition

Behaviors determined by its consequences through reinforcement or punishment. Applies to behaviors that are performed as voluntary responses in order to deliberately attain a desired outcome.

Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities -- OOD

Partners with individuals that live in Ohio to gain access to employment, independence, and what are their Social Security disability determination outcomes.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder -- ODD

Frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, defiance, or vindictiveness towards others of authority.

Over Reactivity to Sensory Input

Over reactivity to sensory input is abnormal sensitivity or hyper responsiveness. This is as state of feeling overwhelmed by what most people would consider common or ordinary stimuli of sound, sight, taste, touch, or smell.

Parallel Play

A form of play for a group of children, in which they engage in an independent activity that is similar to but is not influenced or shared by others. This type of play can also be known as collaborative play.

Parent Mentor

A parent mentor guides families through the special education process and helps families understand their rights and responsibilities. They can attend Individualized Education meetings at the request of parents or staff members, and can support both families and professionals on an individual basis. Parent mentors also work to engage community services and other resources to support schools, families, and students with disabilities.

PASS -- Federal Plan to Achieve Self-Sufficiency

It is an SSI provision that helps individuals with disabilities to return to work.

Performance Intelligence Quotient -- PIQ

The PIQ test is a test to rate an individual’s mental capacity in terms of nonverbal skills.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interactions, verbal, and nonverbal communication. The terms PDD and ASD are used interchangeably.

Physical Therapist -- PT

Therapist who work with individuals in which they use exercise to improve movement

PLAY Project -- Play and Language for Youngsters

It is a parent implemented, intensive early intervention program for young children with autism that is evidence based.

Pointing

An important gesture of the index finger used to request an object or to draw attention to an object to comment on a it or share interest in it.

Positive Reinforcement

The immediate presentation of something rewarding following a wanted behavior. This can include a hug, food, a prize, or special activity.

Power of Attorney: Health Care

Legal document that is used to appoint someone to make health care decisions for a person who is not able to do so.

Power of Attorney: Property

Legal document that is used to appoint someone to make property decisions, such as selling property or making important investment decisions for a person who is not able to do so.

Pragmatics

Social rules for using functional spoken language in a meaningful context or conversation.

Preservation

The term preservation refers to repeating or getting stuck carrying out a behavior when it’s no longer appropriate.

Primary Care Physician -- PCP

In the first source of contact for a person with an undiagnosed health concern as well as continued case of other varied medical conditions

Prompting

This is what care providers or parents do to cue or assist a child to elicit a desired behavior.

Proprioception

Awareness of movement, posture, and changes in the equilibrium

Prosody

The rhythm and melody of spoken language expressed through the rate, pitch, stress, inflection, or intonation.

Protodeclarative Pointing

An important gesture of the index finger used to draw someone’s attention to an object to comment on it or share interest in it

Protoimperative Pointing

An important gesture of the index finger used to request an object

Provider

An individual that is self-employed or works for an agency that provides services for individuals with disabilities.

Psychomotor

Physical and psychological aspects of activity

Punishment

Anything that follows a particular behavior that decreases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future.

Range of Motion

Any body actions involving muscles, joints, and natural movements including abduction, adduction, extension, flexion, pronation, supination, and rotation.

Receptive Language

The ability to understand or comprehend words and sentences that others use.

Regression

A retreat or backward movement in conditions, signs, or symptoms such as in language regression

Regulatory and Sensory Systems

These systems control a child’s ability to take in or register and respond to internal sensory input, external stimuli, and then adjust their emotional and behavioral response to those stimuli and the demands of their surroundings.

Reinforcement

The process of by which a behavior is strengthened through direct association pf a stimulus in close proximity in time to any given behavior an individual may perform.

Reinforcing Stimulus

A reward designed to motivate the child to respond correctly

Relationship Development Intervention

A family based intervention that addresses the symptoms of autism. It focuses on building social and emotional skills.

Repetitive Behaviors and Restricted Interests

Children with ASD may appear to have unusual behaviors such as special interests in particular object (e.g. lint, hair, etc.) or parts of an object.

Repetitive Motor Mannerisms

Stereotyped or repetitive movements or posturing of the body. This includes mannerisms like hand flapping, swaying, or posturing of the fingers, hands, or arms. These mannerisms may seem to have no meaning, but they are providing significant sensory stimulation to the individual.

Repetitive Use of Language

This is seen in the use of echolalia, which is the repetition of words, phrases, intonation, or sounds of speech of others.

Representative Payee

A person or an organization that is authorized to cash and manage public assistance check like social security checks for a person deemed incapable of doing so,

Residential Care Facility

A residential care facility provides personal services, protective oversight, and social care if the client has an impaired capacity to live independently and needs regular supervision on a 24 hour basis.

Respondent Conditioning

Uses manipulation and knowledge of response based behavior. Respondent behavior are actions that are performed due to an antecedent stimulus.

Rituals

Specific and seemingly meaningless behaviors that an individual performs repeatedly in certain situations, such as turning on the lights on and off several times when entering a room.

Screening

A simple way to monitor the development of an individual’s typical development. A screen identifies any obvious signs of developmental delay.

Scripting

Repetition of words, phrases, intonation, or sounds of speech of others.

Section 504

The section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that is generally referred as the civil rights clause for people with disabilities

Self-Advocate

An individual with a disability who takes control of their own lives, makes their own decision about their life, shares their story, and provide support to similar individuals.

Self-determination

Services funded by the government, but are under the control and direction of a service user

Self-Injurious Behavior

Self-inflicted bodily harm such as banging, hitting the hand or arm, or biting. About 10%-15% of individuals with ASD engage in SIB.

Self-Stimulus Behaviors or Stimuli

Also known as stimming, are stereotyped or repetitive movements or postures of the body. This includes mannerisms of the hands (flicking), body (pacing), and odd posturing.

Sensory Defensiveness

An abnormal reaction to an ordinary sensory input. Individuals who are over reactive may display strong negative emotions to stimuli.

Sensory Input

Includes both internal (temperature) and external sensations (light, sound). An individual’s response to sensory input depends on their ability regulate, understand, and adjust their emotions to the demands of their surroundings.

Sensory Stimulation

Behaviors such as finger flicking and toe walking, which can be related to anxiety, tactile defensiveness (aversion to touch), or may be self-stimulatory. Individuals with ASD may engage in self-stimulating behaviors to soothe or comfort themselves.

Serotonin

A neurotransmitter (brain chemical) that plays a part in communicating with the nervous system. It has been noted that the level of serotonin in individuals with ASD may have a higher level than typical people.

Social Interaction

The use of nonverbal or verbal behavior to engage in interaction with people. This can involve eye gaze, speech, gestures, and facial expressions to initiate and respond to interactions with others.

Social Reciprocity

The back and forth flow of social interaction. Impairment of social reciprocity may be seen in not taking an active role in social settings, and may lead to a preference in solitary activities.

Social Security Disability Income -- SSDI

SSDI is received on a monthly basis and is unique for every individual. It is based on an individual’s lifetime earnings, and not how severe an individual’s disability is.

Social Stories

These stories are used to teach communal skill through the use of precise and sequential information about everyday events that an individual may find difficult or confusing.

Social-Imitative Play

Pretending to act out the actions of daily routines like brushing your teeth, or the actions of others like someone talking on the phone.

Spoken Language

Verbal behavior or speech to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings with others. Spoken language can also be referred to as expressive or receptive language

State Support Team -- SST

Local and regional educators that have a history of improving preschools, schools, and special education.

Stereotyped Behaviors

Abnormal or excessive repetition of an action carried out in the same way over time. This may include repetitive movements, posturing of the body, or repetitive movements with objects.

Stereotyped Language

An abnormal or excessive repetition of an action or phrase overtime.

Stereotyped Patterns of Interest

A pattern of preoccupation with a narrow range of interest and activities

Stimulus

A person, place, or thing which includes light, sound, taste, texture, and odor that evokes a person to respond in a certain way.

Supplemental Security Income -- SSI

SSI pays benefits to disabled individuals who have limited income or resources.

Support Administrator -- SA Service Support Administrator -- SSA

Facilitates the development plan of an individual that promotes self-determination. Assists individuals and families to explore and gain access to services and supports.

Supported Employment -- SE

Servicers provisions in which individuals with disabilities are assisted with obtaining and maintaining employment

Symptom

A subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient

Tactile Defensiveness

An individual with ASD may overreact to an ordinary sensory input which may exhibit sensory defensiveness, which is a strong negative response to a sensation that would not ordinarily be upsetting. Tactile defensiveness is specific to being touched or touching something or someone.

Tantrum/Meltdown

Individuals with ASD may develop inappropriate ways to communicate through aggression, self-injurious behavior (SIB), or tantrums. Tantrums in individuals with ASD may be more intense and frequent than those of a typical individual.

Token Economy System

An individual earn tangible things for good behavior.

Transition Planning

A term used when a parent/guardian and their child set up a plan on how your child will deal with the upcoming life decision they will encounter in their adult years.

Transition Services

A coordinated set of activities designed within an outcome orientated process which promotes movement from school to post-school activities including post-secondary education.

Under Reactivity to Sensory Input

An individual’s aspect of abnormal insensitivity to sensory input or hyporeponsiveness, in which an individual does not respond to sensory stimulation.

Vendor

An organization that provides services for individuals with disabilities.

Verbal Intelligence Quotient -- VIQ

The numerical measurement of a person’s ability to use language and speech skills to reason and understand verbal concepts.

Vestibular

A small space in the cavity at the beginning of a canal (ear, heart, mouth, etc.)

Video Modeling

A form of observational learning where the desired skill and behaviors are learned by watching and observing a video demonstration, and then imitating the behaviors of the model in the video.

Visual Cues

These are used to enhance communication and social skills of individuals with ASD. Usually these are picture cards with words.

Vocational Assessment

An assessment that identifies an individual’s strengths, skills, interests, abilities, and rehabilitation needs.

Vocational Rehabilitation

Prepares any person with a disability for useful and purposeful employment through on-the-job training and use of rehabilitative equipment.

Waiver

Used to grant exceptions to people in the Medicaid program who wish to use community based non-institutionalized services. They must be signed to acknowledge that they are forgoing the option of institutional services. They can be accessed through the county board of developmental disabilities.

Non-ABA

AAIDD (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities)

Provides leadership worldwide for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

ABS-Adaptive Behavior Scale

ABS help practitioners diagnose, support, and determine the level of independence an individual has.

Absolute Indicators

These are the initial signs of autism that professionals notice.

ACA-Affordable Care Act

ACA is intended to lower the cost of health care and improve system efficiency. It provides Americans with health care that is affordable and comprehensive.

Accessible

To be accessible meant that it is easy to approach, enter, operate, participate in or use safely, independently and with dignity by a person with a disability

ADA-Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

ADA outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in state and local government services, employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.

Adaptive Behavior

Adaptive Behavior means that a person is significantly limited to two or more skill areas in communication, self-care, home living, social skills, community use, self-direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. It is measured by an instruments that is appropriate for a persons living environment and is determined by a qualified professional.

Adaptive Response

A way a person response to what is happening in the environment.

Adaptive Skills

Also known as Functional Skills, are the skills that are used in daily living such as eating or getting dressed.

ADD-Attention Deficit Disorder

A brain disorder that is marked by a pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with function or development.

ADHD-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

A condition in children who experience overactive behavior (hyperactivity), impulsive behavior, and difficulty paying attention.

Advanced Directive

This document tells a physician what kind of care you would like if you were to become unable to make your own decisions pertaining to your medical treatment. For example, if you were in a coma.

Advocacy

Parents, family members, organizations, or volunteers that work on behalf of the rights and interests of others like individuals with disabilities.

Anxiety

A feeling of worry or nervousness that is typically about an imminent event or something with an outcome that is uncertain.

Aquatic Therapy

It is a practice of physical therapy in an aquatic environment. It is not limited to treatment, rehab, prevention, health, wellness, and fitness of clients.

ASL-American Sign Language

It is a visual language that the brain processes linguistic information through the eyes. The shape, placement and movement of hands, and facial expressions all play an important part of ASL.

Asperger Syndrome or Disorder

A developmental disorder characterized by a lack of social skills, impaired social relationships, poor coordination, and poor concentration.

Assistive Technology

Devices that are used by individuals with disabilities to compensate for functional limitations, and enhances the learning, independence, mobility, communication, environmental control and choice.

Auditory Integration Training

An intervention in which a person with ASD listens to filtered, electronically modulated music for an extended period of time.

Autism

It is a range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech, and nonverbal communication. It does not only affect how the brain develops but may also relate to immunological, gastrointestinal and metabolic problems.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

It is a condition that is related to how brain development can affect the ability of an individual to interact, communicate, relate, play, socialize, imagine, and learn.

Autonomy

An ethical principle that proposes all adults are competent until a court decides that incompetence exists.

Babbling

A child begins to vocalize repeated consonant-vowel combinations, like ba ba ba or da da da, between six to nine months. Babbling precedes real speech and is necessary in the process of learning to talk.

BCABA-Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst

A BCABA can assist behavior analyst that have been certified by an accredited organization.

BCIS-Behavior & Curriculum Intervention Specialist

Works with students, families, and staff in public schools to ensure that children with special needs are receiving the appropriate services and supports to have a successful education.

BDLS-Basic Daily Living Skills

These are normal activities that are done on a daily basis like eating, bathing, getting dressed, grooming, etc.

CCBDD-Cuyahoga County Board of Developmental Disabilities

The CCBDD offers a range of services for individuals with disabilities in Cuyahoga County. These services are provided for young children, families, and seniors which include specialized therapies resources, respite care, community employment, rehab, and crisis intervention.

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

A serious diagnosis that is characterized by at least two years of normal development followed by gradual loss of language, social and motor skills by the age of 10.

Chromosomes

They are large DNA-containing structures in the heart of the cell called the nuclei.

CMS-Community and Medicaid Services

Provide opportunities for individuals with Medicaid to receive services within their own community.

Cognitive

Pertains to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes.

Communication Board

A primary form of communication who may not be able to vocalize intelligibly

Comorbid Conditions

They are additional medical conditions that may occur along with autism.

Compulsions

These are deliberate repetitive behaviors that follow specific rules. Some examples include cleaning, checking, or counting.

Cues or Prompts

Forms of assistance that help teach behaviors and indicates what to do as reinforcement. Cues come in physical, visual, verbal and physical assistance.

Deficit

Any deficiency or difference from what is normal.

Developmental Milestones

These are markers that enable parents and professionals to monitor how a babies learning and behavior develop. As a child develops noticing any slight or major delay can create a red flag or warning sign to seek out help.

Diagnosis

A diagnosis should include all of the child’s development, medical history, activities, and behaviors that they have shown. This must include at least one physician and a multi-disciplinary team from different specialties.

Disability Rights Ohio-DRO

A nonprofit corporation with that advocate for human, civil, and legal rights for individuals with disabilities in Ohio.

EBEI-Early Intensive Behavior Intervention

Refers to an ABA intervention that focuses on very young children with ASD. This is an intensive program that refers to long hours and time spent directly with a child by the instructor.

Echolalia

This is the repetition of work, phrases, intonation, or sound of the speech of others. Children with ASD often display echolalia while learning how to talk.

Echopraxia

Imitation or repetition of body movement of another person.

Educational Service Center- ESC

Provides leadership and support for individuals and school districts within the state of Ohio. They provide effective special education programs, student programs, professional development, and support state regulations to create community partners.

Emotional Regulation

A child’s ability to notice and respond to internal and external sensory input, and then adjust their emotions and behavior to the demands of their surroundings.

Environment

The entire state of circumstances in which an organism exists and behaves

Epilepsy

A group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures, sensory disturbances, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, or all of these.

Expressive Language

The uses of verbal behavior or speech to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feeling with others.

Facial Expressions

These are movements of the face that are used to express emotion or to communicate with others.

Fading

The process of slowly phasing out prompts that are used to elicit desired behavioral response from an individual.

FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education

It is the educational right for all children in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

Functional Play

It is done to complete a task or achieve certain goals. This is often performed during a therapy session.

General Anesthesia

It is an induced state of unconsciousness accompanied by partial or complete loss of protective reflexes, including the ability to independently maintain an airway and respond purposefully to physical stimulation or verbal command.

Gluten

An insoluble protein constitute of wheat and other grains.

Hans Asperger (February 18, 1906- October 21, 1980)

An Austrian pediatrician which Asperger’s Syndrome is name after. He observed autism like behaviors and difficulties with social and communication skills in boys of normal intelligence and language development.

Hyper Responsiveness

It is the abnormal sensitivity or over reactivity to sensory input. This is the state of feeling overwhelmed by what most people would consider common or ordinary stimuli of sound, sight, taste, touch, or smell.

Hypo Responsiveness

It is the abnormal insensitivity or under reactivity to sensory input, in which the brain fails to register incoming stimuli appropriately so the child does not respond to the sensory stimulation.

ICF/MR-Intermediate Care Facility for the Mentally Retarded

It is an intermediate case facility for individuals with mental retardation and developmental disabilities (ICFM/DD)

IDD-Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

A neuro-developmental disorder that affects general intellectual functioning which includes reasoning, planning, judgement, etc.

IEP-Individual Education Program

An IEP is a program designed specifically addressing a student’s particular learning needs, expectations, planning, and program reviewing. It outlines how the school and individual learning services providers will meet expectations through appropriate special education programs and services.

IFSP-Individual Family Service Plan

They are programs for special services for young children with special needs, developmental disabilities, or ASD. They provide services that support the whole family, and create a treatment plan for the child.

Independent Living

When an individual receiving DDRC services, now lives independently

Individual Plan for Employment-IPE

A written plan that describes an individual’s employment goals and the steps need to achieve those set goals.

Insistence on Sameness

Refers to a rigid adherence to a routine or activity carried out in a specific way, which then becomes a ritual or nonfunctional routine.

Intelligence Quotient-IQ

An IQ is the numerical representation of an individual’s mental strength and capacity.

Intrinsic Motivation

Refers to the motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades.

Joint Attention

Joint or shared attention is first accomplished by the caregiver looking at what the infant is looking at. Children learn to talk and use language to share enjoyment, interests, and achievements to later share ideas and experiences. Impairment in joint attention is a core deficit of ASD.

LRE- Least Restrictive Environment

Your child’s right to go into mainstream school.

Medicaid

A funding source of authority under Title XIX if the Social Security Act that provides health care assistance to qualified individuals.

Medicare

A federal health care insurance program, run by the Health Care Finance Administration that includes both hospital and medical insurance

Modeling

Imitating or repeating a sound or an action

Multi-factored Evalutation-MFE Evaluation Team Report-ETR

An evaluation to determine if a child has a disability, and identify the specialized educational services they should receive.

Natural Supports

Supports and resources provided in the community by family, friends, and others who are not paid to provide such supports

NEON- North East Ohio Network

Increases opportunities for individuals with disabilities in Northeast, Ohio through shared resources.

Nonfunctional Routines

These are specified, sequential, and apparently purposeless repeated actions or behaviors that a child engaged in such as always lining up toys in a certain order each time of playing with them.

Nonverbal Behaviors

Behaviors that people do to convey or exchange information or express emotions without the use of words. These include eye gaze, facial expressions, body postures, and gestures.

Obsessions

These are repetitive thoughts that are persistent and intrusive.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-OCD

A chronic disorder in which an individual has uncontrollable, reoccurring thought (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that they feel they need to keep repeating.

Occupational Therapy-OT

Therapist who use purposeful activities to improve movement and coordination, visual perceptual skills, self-help skills, and reading skills.

Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities-OCECD

A statewide nonprofit organization that serves families and individuals of all ages with a disability, as well as the educators and professionals who provide them with service.

Ohio Department of Education-ODE

Oversees the Ohio’s public education system. Their tasks include overseeing the school funding system, collect school fiscal and performance data, developing academic standards, administering achievement tests, issuing district and school report cards, and providing professional developments.

Ohio DODD- Ohio Department of Developmental Disabilities

Committed to improving the quality of life for individuals in Ohio with developmental disabilities and their families. They offer support across the lifespan of individuals with developmental disabilities.

Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities-OOD

Partners with individuals that live in Ohio to gain access to employment, independence, and what are their Social Security disability determination outcomes.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, defiance, or vindictiveness towards others of authority.

Over Reactivity to Sensory Input

Over reactivity to sensory input is abnormal sensitivity or hyper responsiveness. This is as state of feeling overwhelmed by what most people would consider common or ordinary stimuli of sound, sight, taste, touch, or smell.

Parallel Play

A form of play for a group of children, in which they engage in an independent activity that is similar to but is not influenced or shared by others. This type of play can also be known as collaborative play.

Parent Mentor

A parent mentor guides families through the special education process and helps families understand their rights and responsibilities. They can attend Individualized Education meetings at the request of parents or staff members, and can support both families and professionals on an individual basis. Parent mentors also work to engage community services and other resources to support schools, families, and students with disabilities.

PASS-Federal Plan to Achieve Self-Sufficiency

It is an SSI provision that helps individuals with disabilities to return to work.

Performance Intelligence Quotient-PDD

The PIQ test is a test to rate an individual’s mental capacity in terms of nonverbal skills.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

A broad category of disability that involves problems in social interactions, verbal, and nonverbal communication. The terms PDD and ASD are used interchangeably.

Physical Therapist-PT

Therapist who work with individuals in which they use exercise to improve movement

PLAY Project- Play and Language for Youngsters

It is a parent implemented, intensive early intervention program for young children with autism that is evidence based.

Pointing

An important gesture of the index finger used to request an object or to draw attention to an object to comment on it or share interest in it.

Power of Attorney: Health Care

Legal document that is used to appoint someone to make health care decisions for a person who is not able to do so.

Power of Attorney: Property

Legal document that is used to appoint someone to make property decisions, such as selling property or making important investment decisions for a person who is not able to do so.

Pragmatics

Social rules for using functional spoken language in a meaningful context or conversation.

Preservation

The term preservation refers to repeating or getting stuck carrying out a behavior when it’s no longer appropriate.

Primary Care Physician-PCP

In the first source of contact for a person with an undiagnosed health concern as well as continued case of other varied medical conditions

Prompting

This is what care providers or parents do to cue or assist a child to elicit a desired behavior.

Proprioception

Awareness of movement, posture, and changes in the equilibrium

Prosody

The rhythm and melody of spoken language expressed through the rate, pitch, stress, inflection, or intonation.

Protodeclarative Pointing

An important gesture of the index finger used to draw someone’s attention to an object to comment on it or share interest in it

Protoimperative Pointing

An important gesture of the index finger used to request an object

Provider

An individual that is self-employed or works for an agency that provides services for individuals with disabilities.

Psychomotor

Physical and psychological aspects of activity

Range of Motion

Any body actions involving muscles, joints, and natural movements including abduction, adduction, extension, flexion, pronation, supination, and rotation.

Receptive Language

The ability to understand or comprehend words and sentences that others use.

Regression

A retreat or backward movement in conditions, signs, or symptoms such as in language regression

Regulatory and Sensory Systems

These systems control a child’s ability to take in or register and respond to internal sensory input, external stimuli, and then adjust their emotional and behavioral response to those stimuli and the demands of their surroundings.

Relationship Development Intervention

A family based intervention that addresses the symptoms of autism. It focuses on building social and emotional skills.

Repetitive Behaviors and Restricted Interests

Children with ASD may appear to have unusual behaviors such as special interests in particular object (e.g. lint, hair, etc.) or parts of an object.

Repetitive Motor Mannerisms

Stereotyped or repetitive movements or posturing of the body. This includes mannerisms like hand flapping, swaying, or posturing of the fingers, hands, or arms. These mannerisms may seem to have no meaning, but they are providing significant sensory stimulation to the individual.

Repetitive Use of Language

This is seen in the use of echolalia, which is the repetition of words, phrases, intonation, or sounds of speech of others.

Representative Payee

A person or an organization that is authorized to cash and manage public assistance check like social security checks for a person deemed incapable of doing so,

Residential Care Facility

A residential care facility provides personal services, protective oversight, and social care if the client has an impaired capacity to live independently and needs regular supervision on a 24 hour basis.

Rituals

Specific and seemingly meaningless behaviors that an individual performs repeatedly in certain situations, such as turning on the lights on and off several times when entering a room.

Screening

A simple way to monitor the development of an individual’s typical development. A screen identifies any obvious signs of developmental delay.

Scripting

Repetition of words, phrases, intonation, or sounds of speech of others.

Section 504

The section of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that is generally referred as the civil rights clause for people with disabilities

Self-Advocate

An individual with a disability who takes control of their own lives, makes their own decision about their life, shares their story, and provide support to similar individuals.

Self-determination

Services funded by the government, but are under the control and direction of a service user

Self-Injurious Behavior

Self-inflicted bodily harm such as banging, hitting the hand or arm, or biting. About 10%-15% of individuals with ASD engage in SIB.

Self-Stimulus Behaviors or Stimuli

Also known as stimming, are stereotyped or repetitive movements or postures of the body. This includes mannerisms of the hands (flicking), body (pacing), and odd posturing.

Sensory Defensiveness

An abnormal reaction to an ordinary sensory input. Individuals who are over reactive may display strong negative emotions to stimuli.

Sensory Input

Includes both internal (temperature) and external sensations (light, sound). An individual’s response to sensory input depends on their ability regulate, understand, and adjust their emotions to the demands of their surroundings.

Sensory Stimulation

Behaviors such as finger flicking and toe walking, which can be related to anxiety, tactile defensiveness (aversion to touch), or may be self-stimulatory. Individuals with ASD may engage in self-stimulating behaviors to soothe or comfort themselves.

Serotonin

A neurotransmitter (brain chemical) that plays a part in communicating with the nervous system. It has been noted that the level of serotonin in individuals with ASD may have a higher level than typical people.

Social Interaction

The use of nonverbal or verbal behavior to engage in interaction with people. This can involve eye gaze, speech, gestures, and facial expressions to initiate and respond to interactions with others.

Social Reciprocity

The back and forth flow of social interaction. Impairment of social reciprocity may be seen in not taking an active role in social settings, and may lead to a preference in solitary activities.

Social Security Disability Income-SSDI

SSDI is received on a monthly basis and is unique for every individual. It is based on an individual’s lifetime earnings, and not how severe an individual’s disability is.

Social Stories

These stories are used to teach communal skill through the use of precise and sequential information about everyday events that an individual may find difficult or confusing.

Social-Imitative Play

Pretending to act out the actions of daily routines like brushing your teeth, or the actions of others like someone talking on the phone.

Spoken Language

Verbal behavior or speech to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings with others. Spoken language can also be referred to as expressive or receptive language

State Support Team- SST

Local and regional educators that have a history of improving preschools, schools, and special education.

Stereotyped Behaviors

Abnormal or excessive repetition of an action carried out in the same way over time. This may include repetitive movements, posturing of the body, or repetitive movements with objects.

Stereotyped Language

An abnormal or excessive repetition of an action or phrase overtime.

Stereotyped Patterns of Interest

A pattern of preoccupation with a narrow range of interest and activities

Stimming

See: Self-stimulus behaviors

Supplemental Security Income-SSI

SSI pays benefits to disabled individuals who have limited income or resources.

Support Administrator-SA Service Support Administrator-SSA

Facilitates the development plan of an individual that promotes self-determination. Assists individuals and families to explore and gain access to services and supports.

Supported Employment-SE

Servicers provisions in which individuals with disabilities are assisted with obtaining and maintaining employment

Symptom

A subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the patient

Tactile Defensiveness

An individual with ASD may overreact to an ordinary sensory input which may exhibit sensory defensiveness, which is a strong negative response to a sensation that would not ordinarily be upsetting. Tactile defensiveness is specific to being touched or touching something or someone.

Tantrum/Meltdown

Individuals with ASD may develop inappropriate ways to communicate through aggression, self-injurious behavior (SIB), or tantrums. Tantrums in individuals with ASD may be more intense and frequent than those of a typical individual.

Token Economy System

An individual earn tangible things for good behavior.

Transition Planning

A term used when a parent/guardian and their child set up a plan on how your child will deal with the upcoming life decision they will encounter in their adult years.

Transition Services

A coordinated set of activities designed within an outcome orientated process which promotes movement from school to post-school activities including post-secondary education.

Under Reactivity to Sensory Input

An individual’s aspect of abnormal insensitivity to sensory input or hyporeponsiveness, in which an individual does not respond to sensory stimulation.

Vendor

An organization that provides services for individuals with disabilities.

Verbal Intelligence Quotient -VIQ

The numerical measurement of a person’s ability to use language and speech skills to reason and understand verbal concepts.

Vestibular

A small space in the cavity at the beginning of a canal (ear, heart, mouth, etc.)

Video Modeling

A form of observational learning where the desired skill and behaviors are learned by watching and observing a video demonstration, and then imitating the behaviors of the model in the video.

Visual Cues

These are used to enhance communication and social skills of individuals with ASD. Usually these are picture cards with words.

Vocational Assessment

An assessment that identifies an individual’s strengths, skills, interests, abilities, and rehabilitation needs.

Vocational Rehabilitation

Prepares any person with a disability for useful and purposeful employment through on-the-job training and use of rehabilitative equipment.

Wavier

Used to grant exceptions to people in the Medicaid program who wish to use community based non-institutionalized services. They must be signed to acknowledge that they are forgoing the option of institutional services. They can be accessed through the county board of developmental disabilities.

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